Differential Effects of D9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- and Cannabidiol (CBD)-Based Cannabinoid Treatments on Macrophage Immune Function In Vitro and on Gastrointestinal Inflammation in a Murine Model.” Biomedicines, 10, 8. Abstract. 2022. “
Phytocannabinoids possess a wide range of immune regulatory properties, mediated by the endocannabinoid system. Monocyte/macrophage innate immune cells express endocannabinoid receptors. Dysregulation of macrophage function is involved in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In our research, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the phytocannabinoids D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on macrophage activation. Macrophages from young and aged C57BL/6 mice were activated in vitro in the presence of pure cannabinoids or cannabis extracts. The phenotype of the cells, nitric oxide (NO•) secretion, and cytokine secretion were examined. In addition, these treatments were administered to murine colitis model. The clinical statuses of mice, levels of colon infiltrating macrophages, and inflammatory cytokines in the blood, were evaluated. We demonstrated inhibition of macrophage NO• and cytokine secretion and significant effects on expression of cell surface molecules. In the murine model, clinical scores were improved and macrophage colon infiltration reduced following treatment. We identified higher activity of cannabis extracts as compared with pure cannabinoids. Each treatment had a unique effect on cytokine composition. Overall, our results establish that the effects of cannabinoid treatments differ. A better understanding of the reciprocal relationship between cannabinoids and immunity is essential to design targeted treatment strategies.