Elyad Davidson

Noa Raz, Iso Heller, Titti Lombardi, Giorgio Marino, Elyad M Davidson, and Aharon M Eyal. 2022. “Terpene-Enriched CBD oil for treating autism-derived symptoms unresponsive to pure CBD: Case report.”. Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) rich products are successfully used in some countries for treating symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, CBD provides insufficient intervention in some individuals, or for some characterizing symptoms of ASD, raising the need for improved compositions. The current study presents a case wherein pure CBD was sufficient for treating ASD during childhood and early adolescence. However, it became insufficient during puberty accompanied by increased hyperactivity, agitation, and frequent severe aggressive behavior. Increasing the CBD dose did not result in significant improvement. Enriching the pure CBD with a carefully selected blend of anxiolytic and calming terpenes, resulted in gradual elimination of those aggressive events. Importantly, this was achieved with a significantly reduced CBD dose, being less than one-half the amount used when treating with pure CBD. This case demonstrates a strong improvement in efficacy due to terpene enrichment, where pure CBD was not sufficient. Combined with terpenes' high safety index and the ease with which they can be incorporated into cannabinoid-containing products, terpene-enriched CBD products may provide a preferred approach for treating ASD and related conditions. The careful selection of terpenes to be added enables maximizing the efficacy and tailoring the composition to particular and changing needs of ASD subjects, e.g., at different times of the day (daytime vs nighttime products).
Aharon M Eyal, Dana Berneman Zeitouni, Dor Tal, Daniel Schlesinger, Elyad M Davidson, and Noa Raz. 2022. “Vapor Pressure, Vaping, and Corrections to Misconceptions Related to Medical Cannabis' Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients' Physical Properties and Compositions.” Cannabis and cannabinoid research. Abstract
Medical cannabis products contain dozens of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) derived from the cannabis plant. However, their actual compositions and relative doses significantly change according to the production methods. Product compositions are strongly dependent on processing step conditions and on components' evaporation during those steps. Review of the documentation presented to caregivers and to patients show erroneous data or misinterpretation of data related to the evaporation, for example, cannabinoids' boiling points, as well as confusions between terms, such as boiling, vaporization, and evaporation. Clarifying these aspects is essential for caregivers, for researchers, and for developers of manufacturing processes. Original and literature data were analyzed, comparing composition changes during various processing steps and correlating the extent of change to components' vapor pressures at the corresponding temperature. Evaporation-related composition changes start at temperatures as low as those of drying and curing and become extensive during decarboxylation. The relative rate of components' evaporation is determined by their relative vapor pressure and monoterpenes are lost first. On vaping, terpenes are inhaled before cannabinoids do. Commercial medical cannabis products are deficient in terpenes, mainly monoterpenes, compared with the cannabis plants used to produce them. Terms, such as "whole plant" and "full spectrum," are misleading since no product actually reflects the original cannabis plant composition. There are important implications for medical cannabis manufacturing and for the ability to make the most out of the terpene API contribution. Medical cannabis products' composition and product delivery are controlled by the relative vapor pressure of the various APIs. Quantitative data provided in this study can be used for improvement to reach better accuracy, reproducibility, and preferred medical cannabis compositions.
Differences between therapeutic effects of medical cannabis inflorescences and those of their extracts are generally attributed to the differences in administration form and in the resultant pharmacokinetics. We hypothesized that difference may further extend to the composition of the actually consumed drug. Cannabinoid and terpene contents were compared between commercial cannabis inflorescences (n = 19) and decarboxylated extracts (n = 12), and between inflorescences and decarboxylated extracts produced from them (n = 10). While cannabinoid content was preserved in the extracts, a significant loss of terpenes was evident, mainly in the more volatile monoterpenes and monoterpenoids (representing a loss of about 90%). This loss changes the total terpene content, the proportion of monoterpenes out of the total terpenes, and the monoterpene/cannabinoid ratio. Terpene deficiency might impair extracts' pharmacological efficacy and might contribute to the patients' preference to inflorescences-smoking. This argues against the validity of terms such as "whole plant" and "full spectrum" extracts and creates a misleading assumption that extracts represent the pharmacological profile of the sourced inflorescences. Furthermore, it reduces the diversity in extracts, such as loss of differences between sativa-type and indica-type. Enriching cannabis extracts with selected terpenes may provide a suitable solution, generating a safe, precise, and reproducible drug with tailored cannabinoid and terpene contents. Careful selection of terpenes to be added enables tailor-made extracts, adjusted for various medicinal aims and for different populations.
E.M. Davidson, N. Raz, and A.M. Eyal. 2020. “Anesthetic considerations in medical cannabis patients.” Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 33, 6, Pp. 832-840. Publisher's Version Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growing numbers of patients, consuming cannabinoids admitted to surgery, create a challenge to anesthesia providers. This review provides a summary of recent literature related to cannabis and anesthesia, with specific recommendations to the anesthetic management of medical cannabis consumers. RECENT FINDINGS: At present, cannabis has found its way to public consensus in many countries and is penetrating slower to different medical fields. We relate and discuss recent findings investigating effects of cannabis consumption on the various aspects including perioperative measures, post-operative pain, PONV, cardiovascular stability, and anesthesia monitoring. SUMMARY: Recent surveys estimate that 10-20% of adult populations have consumed cannabis in the past year. Medical cannabis consumers are a newer group of cannabis users. Anesthesia providers have to update their knowledge on cannabis and possible anesthetic interaction. It is unreasonable to make recommendations that apply to the whole heterogeneous group of cannabis users, but is easier with the more homogenous group of Medical cannabis users, characterized by frequent use and relatively high cannabis doses, combined with good knowledge of administered composition and protocol, as well as adverse and withdrawal effects. Anesthesia providers have to know the effects and modify anesthetic plan accordingly. We provide perioperative anesthetic recommendations related to medical cannabis consumers. Collecting information of the effects of medical cannabis use in perioperative setting will further create a highly useful database for anesthetics in the close future.