Oren Ostersetzer

I.D. Small, M. Schallenberg-Rüdinger, M. Takenaka, H. Mireau, and O. Ostersetzer-Biran. 2020. “Plant organellar RNA editing: what 30 years of research has revealed.” Plant Journal, 101, 5, Pp. 1040-1056. Publisher's Version Abstract
The central dogma in biology defines the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Accordingly, RNA molecules generally accurately follow the sequences of the genes from which they are transcribed. This rule is transgressed by RNA editing, which creates RNA products that differ from their DNA templates. Analyses of the RNA landscapes of terrestrial plants have indicated that RNA editing (in the form of C-U base transitions) is highly prevalent within organelles (that is, mitochondria and chloroplasts). Numerous C→U conversions (and in some plants also U→C) alter the coding sequences of many of the organellar transcripts and can also produce translatable mRNAs by creating AUG start sites or eliminating premature stop codons, or affect the RNA structure, influence splicing and alter the stability of RNAs. RNA-binding proteins are at the heart of post-transcriptional RNA expression. The C-to-U RNA editing process in plant mitochondria involves numerous nuclear-encoded factors, many of which have been identified as pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that target editing sites in a sequence-specific manner. In this review we report on major discoveries on RNA editing in plant organelles, since it was first documented 30 years ago. © 2019 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
O. Ostersetzer-Biran and L. Klipcan. 2020. “Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translational quality control in plant mitochondria.” Mitochondrion, 54, Pp. 15-20. Publisher's Version Abstract
Gene expression involves the transfer of information stored in the DNA to proteins by two sequential key steps: transcription and translation. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), an ancient group of enzymes, are key to these processes as they catalyze the attachment of each of the 20 amino acids to their corresponding tRNA molecules. Yet, in addition to the 20 canonical amino acids, plants also produce numerous non-proteogenic amino acids (NPAAs), some of which are erroneously loaded into tRNAs, translated into non-functional or toxic proteins and may thereby disrupt essential cellular processes. While many studies have been focusing on plant organelle RNA metabolism, mitochondrial translation still lags behind its characterization in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Notably, plant mitochondrial aaRSs generally have a dual location, residing also within the chloroplasts or cytosol. Currently, little is known about how mitochondrial aaRSs distinguish between amino acids and their closely related NPAAs. The organelle translation machineries in plants seem more susceptible to NPAAs due to protein oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and high rates of protein turnover. We speculate that plant organellar aaRSs have acquired high-affinities to their cognate amino acid substrates to reduce cytotoxic effects by NPAAs. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society